Point-to-point (P2P)

Point-to-point (P2P) technology, based on Ethernet, offers a cost-effective, scalable and high performance infrastructure that connects residential- and business customers in broadband access networks.

Our MetroStar access- and aggregation switches and the MPC series of edge routers provides a smart network solution with focus on the end-users experience, smart functions and ease of operations. No other vendor provides the same versatile set of tools, built into the equipment, that you need to deploy and operate the network efficiently.

FTTH networks can be built in several ways. Waystream supports all common topologies, including customer-VLAN based and service-VLAN based topologies. In addition Waystream can also provide solutions for layer3 routed topologies that further simplifies network operation.

Customer VLAN topologies

Based on Ethernet standards, the customer VLAN topology (C-VLAN) uses the VLAN concept to isolate traffic belonging to different customers in the access network. Each residential home or business is connected to a port that is assigned to a unique C-VLAN.

The set of C-VLANs is bridged to through the aggregation layer to a broadband network gateway (BNG), such as the Waystream MPC480, where service configuration (rate-limiting) for each customer - and even each client if needed - is made.

Network size will determine if additional technologies such as Q-in-Q ("double tagging") of VLANs for scalability reasons is applicable and if the MPCis placed centrally or distributed in the network. Some networks use an MPLS metro network to backhaul traffic to the MPC. The feature flexibility of the Waystream solution also enables the MPC to forward traffic into different MPLS VPNs - allowing mix of business and residential services and transport services over the same infrastructure.

Service control in the network is often done through RADIUS based authorization to the MPC, but other commercial automation solutions are also common to adapt network configuration for individual customers subscription.

Service VLAN topologies

The service-VLAN topology uses non-standard methods to isolate traffic between ports in the same VLAN for security and end-user integrity purposes. All end-users using the same service/category of service are part of the same VLAN. Service control is typically done on the port of the access switch connecting the end-user instead of at a central BNG.

In some networks use multiple service VLANS (Q-trunk to the end-user) to the customer premise equipment to separate traffic to different ports on the switch in the end-user home or office. Rate-limiting features in the switch typically uses policing or in some cases egress shaping on port queues for Internet service.

Service-VLANs often span across mulitple switches in the access and aggregation layers. The service-VLANs are layer3 terminated in a layer3 switch or edge router, but no advanced service features are applied here - standard routing is sufficient if the service control already has been done at the access-layer.

Networks deploying service-VLAN topologies often require a high degree of automation of the configuration of the access switches - not least if the service control is made there. Several commercial options for automation exists, often using the command line interface of the access switch to set and remove configuration as services are updated.

Layer3 routed topologies

In a layer3 routed solution, the access-switches routes the traffic all the way to the access port that connect the end-users. The access-switch acts as the default-gateway for the end-users. Each user is connected on a port that is separated by routing. To avoid waste of IPv4 address space, a method to allow multiple end-users to share the same IPv4 prefix - even across multiple switches - is applied.

The end-user is connected without any VLANs to the home/office router or switch - it is a plain layer2 domain. Rate-limiting and service control is done in the access-switch using policing and shaping features. The whole setup resembles the operation of a BNG, but in the access-switch.

The main advantages in the layer3 routed topology are load-sharing through routing over multiple links, fast redundancy and easy network operation (tools such as ping and traceroute can be used).

Networks deploying layer3 routed topologies often require a high degree of automation of the configuration of the access switches. Typical commercial tools perform configuration through the command line interface to set and remove configuration commands for the services. Waystream switches also allows RADIUS to be used to authorize services for connected end-users.